The EEOC, Civil Service Commission, Department of Labor and Department of Justice together issues uniform guidelines. These set forth highly recommended procedures regarding things like record keeping, employee selection and pre-employment enquiries.
They specify that employers must validate any employment selection devices like tests and interview questions, which screen out or eliminate disproportionate numbers of women and minorities. And they also explain how to validate a selection device.
Test Validity: This test answers the question; “does this test measure what it is supposed to?” The accuracy with which an interview, test etc. measures what it has to or fulfill the function it was designed to fulfill.
Example: A written test for a mechanical comprehension was conducted by an organization in which Chahana score more than Ipsita, can we be sure that it means that chahana’s mechanical comprehension is better than Ipsita? A test is only valid if the test is job related and validity can be approved. This US EEO law requires only valid tests to be used for selection.
Types to validating a test:
• Criterion Validity: It refers to validating that those who do well in the tests also do well on the job and the same is for poor performance. Here the test score is the predictor and criterion is job performance.
• Content Validity: The validity is proven by showing that the tests constitute a fair sample of the job’s content.
Periodically updates guidelines, revising and clarifying their positions on different matters, example: Racism and Sexual Harassment are issues by the EEOC and other agencies. The American Psychological Association has its own (non-legally blinding) standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.