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Definition: Segmentation Fault
A segmentation fault is an error which occurs when a program of a hardware is trying to access a memory location for which access is denied or which is not present at all. This happens primarily due to incorrect physical memory addressing or due to some kind of misalignment in memory addressing.
Segmentation fault is caused by various reasons. One of them could be some kind of bug or programing error in a software program. For example if a program is trying to write into read only memory location.
Sometimes it also caused by erroneous driver issues or overheating. If it happens because of some kind of programing issues it is recommended to debug the code (with the help of a suitable debugger called gdb) and fix the problem. In general, software companies release patches for their products to fix such type of bugs. If it happens because of some kind of driver issues, re-installation or update of driver is needed.