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NoSQL databases (not only SQL databases) are used to store high volume data of non-uniform field formatting. Generally the database used for transactional purposes are SQL databases which are relational in nature and can store data of certain predefined format only.
Now a days where data is growing with a very high velocity, such databases cannot be used to store high volume of large variety of data. So to overcome the limitations of relational databases NoSQL databases are used. It is also different from relational databases in terms of its modelling. NoSQL database is schema less database and also there is no predefined model for such databases (like relational model for SQL databases).
NoSQL databases are also called elastic databases as it can be scaled up or scaled down anytime depending upon the availability of data. This can be done easily because cloud storage is used to store such type of data which is not only scalable to a large extent but also cheap. There is no need of buying dedicated storage devices to maintain such data. That’s why NoSQL database is used for storing Big Data.
NoSQL databases stores data in a distributed computing system and the underlying theorem on which such databases is based on is “CAP theorem”. CAP theorem says that a distributed computer system cannot guarantee all three features at the same time which are:
a) Consistency of data
b) Availabilityof data (guaranteeing that every request receives response)
c) Partition tolerance of data (loss or failure of data).