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Definition: Parallel Processing Systems
Parallel processing systems are kind of multiprocessor systems which are basically used to speed up the execution of computer programs. It is done by dividing the programs into different modules or fragments and executing them simultaneously or in parallel. A parallel processing cluster is formed by setting up a network of connected computers where each computer have multiple processors.
The execution takes place by dividing each program into a series of instructions and executing these instructions on different central processing units (CPUs). In a computer where CPUs are having multiple cores instructions are executed by different cores of a single CPU which makes the execution even faster. In other words it is like a network of various multitasking systems.
Parallel processing systems are used to cut short execution time and hence provide higher throughput. But it has a disadvantage like more hardware and power requirement or in other words higher setup cost.