Kotter suggested a change model consisting of 8 steps. The purpose of the model was to enable change in the right manner to create value and to ensure that change efforts do not fail. The 8 phases of his model are:
1. Establish a sense of urgency – Whenever an issue is noticed, it should be immediately dealt with. People have to be motivated with a sense of emergency as change always brings about reluctance.
2. Create a coalition – Change, though initially identified by a few people, needs the support and buy-in of the majority of people to be successful and effective.
3. Develop a clear vision – A clear vision needs to be established which can serve as a guiding principle. It will drive the company in the right direction. It will also communicate the same objective to all the stakeholders.
4. Share the vision –Sharing and communicating the vision is equally important. It is to be communicated to the customers, suppliers, employees etc. using the existing effective means of communication.
5. Empower people to clear obstacles- All the obstacles that come in the way to implementing the change need to be removed. For example, employees should be given some time to implement change out of the time assigned to them for regular work. Stakeholders need to be empowered to lead the change.
6. Secure short-term wins – It is necessary to recognize short term wins and not wait for the final result. This will keep the employees motivated and provide them a reason to carry the change forward.
7. Consolidate and keep moving – Whereas short term wins are important, the victory should not be declared too soon. All efforts should be consolidated to move ahead till the final result is achieved.
8. Anchor the change – The change has to become a part of a firm’s value and culture. The people need to be sure that the change has left a positive impact and was worthwhile to bring about. The leaders also need to ensure that they carry changes in future.
These 8 phases need to be followed in the sequence mentioned above.