Outcome variables are usually the dependent variables which are observed and measured by changing independent variables. These variables determine the effect of the cause (independent) variables when changed for different values. The dependent variables are the outcomes of the experiments determining what was caused or what changed as a result of the study.
For a simple example, the marks a student obtains in an exam is a result of the hard word measured in the number of hours put behind studying and the intelligence measured in IQ are the independent variables. The marks obtained thus represents the dependent or outcome variable. When the values of the independent variables are changed, the marks may or may not change and hence dependent variables are dependent on the independent variables while the opposite is implausible i.e., when the marks are changed, it doesn’t change the number of hours of study or the IQ of the student.
The response variable is also called as the dependent variable because it depends on the causal factor, the independent variable. Depending on the various input values of the experimental variables, the responses are recorded.