Job analysis is having a thorough understanding about a particular job and understanding the key skill requirements, roles, responsibilities, workplace processes, organizational hierarchy etc after conducting a research. Job analysis involves collecting job related information and highlighting the basic requirements needed by an employee to successfully fulfill the role & profile in order to achieve the goals & objectives set by the company. The analysis also gives an overview on the physical, emotional & related human qualities required to execute the job successfully.
HR managers use job analysis to do complete research on the job requirements, work activities, performance standards, evaluation methods etc and give information to employees and prospective candidates so that they have a better understanding on what is required from them. Job analysis is broadly bifurcated into two components i.e. job description and job specification. Both these together give a complete understanding about job title, position, location, qualification, skills, duties, responsibilities, skills etc.
Importance of Job Analysis
Job analysis is a critical part of recruiting a person for a particular role. Since it covers all the aspects which would be required to complete a particular role, it is an important way to ensure that the right candidate is selected to deliver the right output. Job analysis can be beneficial for both the HR managers (organization) and employees / candidates. Job analysis aids the organization in recruitment and selection, performance management, training needs identification, deciding compensation and benefits, etc.
A good job analysis helps in understanding the following:
1. Who can perform the job?
2. When and where the job has to be done?
3. What are the perks, salaries, benefits etc related to the job?
4. What educational qualifications, skill sets, work experience etc is required?
5. What is criteria for recruitment, selection, performance evaluation, appraisal, compensation etc?
HR managers user job analysis as a tool to ensure that the employees give their maximum output and fulfill the objectives related to a job. They can lay down guidelines and frameworks which would help them recruit the most apt person, ensure they have the right skills and monitor their roles, responsibilities & output. Job analysis helps HR managers to decide the salaries, incentives & other benefits in accordance with the job title, position, location etc.
Similarly, job analysis is important for employees and prospective candidates as they get a thorough understanding of what is actually required from them. Employees have a clear picture on their deliverables, the wages, workplace environment, benefits etc. A candidate while applying can easily identify the best job for their which suits their skills, training, previous experience, areas of interest etc. Thus job analysis is a critical component for both the managers as well as employees in maximizing the output for the company.
Job Analysis Process
There is a streamlined process in getting complete information related to a job. It is important to have full information related to a particular job, which would only help to get the right person for the right job. The job analysis process can be summarized as below:
1. Identify the need of having a job analysis for a particular goal the company is looking for
2. Study the best possible methods to extract maximum information related to the job, responsibilities etc
3. Understanding the key parameters to be captured i.e. job requirements, context, deliverables
4. Actual data collection from within the organization & through competitor structure. It covers aspects related to organization structure, reporting, job related activities, roles to be undertaken etc
5. Verification and preparing the final job analysis document covering all aspects related to the profile
6. Creating a job description and job specification.
Job Analysis Methods
The process of collecting information for job analysis has to be very thorough and completed with accurate research. Some methods which can be used to collect job related information is given below:
1. Observation: Attributes like workplace environment, physical activities, techniques & skills required etc can all be covered by simply observing existing or similar jobs
2. Interview: Interviewing employees helps in understanding the challenges, difficulties, emotional requirements, complications, deliverables etc
3. Questionnaire: Questionnaires helps in obtaining large volumes of data and this data can be quantified & analysed to understand the job requirements in a much better way
Difference between Job Description and Job Specification
A good job analysis helps in creating a job description and job specification, which are quite similar terms. Hence, the difference is explained below. Job description and job specification are both a part of Job analysis given by a company. There is a very minor difference between job description and job specification. Job description is used to describe the various aspects of a job where as job specification covers the specific parameters required to complete the job. Job description covers parameters like roles & responsibilities of the job, title, location where the job is based out of, job duties, senior hierarchy, components / softwares to be used to complete the job. On the other hand, job specification covers parameters like skills required, trainings undertaken, professional qualification, key responsibilities & characteristics required to complete the given job. Both of these explained together explain the job analysis for any position in a company.
Advantages of Job Analysis
Some of the benefits of having a job analysis are mentioned below:
1. It helps HR managers to have a systematic plan for recruitment and selection
2. Job analysis clearly defines the description & specification, which highlights the job requirements, skills, incentives etc
3. It becomes easier for employees to understand their goals & objectives
4. HR managers can use job analysis information as a benchmark to evaluate performance of employees and perform their appraisal / promotions accordingly
5. It helps in maintaining the organizational structure by having information related to reporting manager, job position, title, location etc
Limitations of Job Analysis
1. The actual experience, difficulties, job related queries etc cannot be covered despite a thorough research
2. Job analysis cannot forecast the future requirements of a job in case of a major change in industry norms, company policies etc