Hygiene factors refer to those motivation factors for an employee which if not present in an organization, can demotivate the individual & reduce their performance. Hygiene factors include a good salary, job profile, benefits, company sponsored vacations etc.
These are 'good to have' factors in an organization, which further motivate the employee if they are given to the employee. Lack of presence of hygiene factors, will leave the employee dissatisfied, and will reduce his/her morale to perform well.
For any employee, his job role is the primary factor, whereas the workplace culture, the environment, privacy etc. are the hygiene factors. The employee will witness high levels of job satisfaction only if the hygiene factors are taken into consideration along with the primary factors.