a. Poor quality product reaching the customer
b. Unsatisfactory service system
c. Passing the incremental costs to consumer
Example- HLL, GE or P&G can obtain strong cooperation from resellers regarding displays, shelf space, promotions and price policies.
Vertical marketing systems can take several forms which can be-
one member of the distribution channel owns the other members but each continues to perform a separate task.
One member of the channel is large and powerful enough to coordinate the activities of the other members without an ownership stake.
Independent firms are joined together by contract for their mutual benefit. An example can be a retailer cooperative or a franchise organization.
This article has been researched & authored by the Business Concepts Team. It has been reviewed & published by the MBA Skool Team. The content on MBA Skool has been created for educational & academic purpose only.
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