7Ps Booms Bitner - Meaning & Definition

Published in Marketing and Strategy Terms by MBA Skool Team

What is 7Ps Booms Bitner?

The 7Ps framework of Booms and Bitner is basically oriented for services marketing. The traditional 4ps of marketing which includes product, process, price and promotion are more suitable for product marketing rather than services marketing which has its own fundamental characteristics like being intangible, perishable, inseparable and heterogeneous. Booms and Bitner therefore suggested 3 more Ps to be considered while marketing services- people, physical evidence and process- which are described below.


These involve all those concerned with the service-either directly or indirectly. For example-consumers, employees, workers, middlemen, etc. In services, the production and consumption of the service happen together and are inseparable. Therefore, the consumer experience is directly proportional to the effectiveness of the contact employees providing it. Typical examples can be- nurses, hair dressers, teachers or trainers. Thus, it is essential that the firm pays attention to the training and overall development of its personnel as it will be these people who will be the production and delivery centre at the consumer end.

Physical Evidence

It refers to whole environment in which the service is presented and sold to the consumers. It includes all the tangibles that create perceptions about the service and the firm offering it. As an example, consider a salon service where the physical evidence includes the interiors of the place, the dress up of the personnel, the recognition certificates hung on wall, the magazines and brochures lying on table.

All these work either positively or negatively to affect the consumer experience about the service he will be offered and the company offering it.


This involves the operational aspects of the service such as the procedures, time duration and sequence of activities leading to the consumer experience of the service. Creating an effective service process is essential for the success of a service firm.

Hence, this concludes the definition of 7Ps Booms Bitner along with its overview.

This article has been researched & authored by the Business Concepts Team. It has been reviewed & published by the MBA Skool Team. The content on MBA Skool has been created for educational & academic purpose only.

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