Job Design

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Definition: Job Design

Job design is the process of organizing work as group of tasks, arranging and defining the job process and structure at the workplace depending on the job analysis performed. The job design takes into account the organizational objectives to be achieved along with trying to minimize on–the-job fatigue, stress and human error.  Job Design is done specifically to reduce the mechanical aspects of the job and make sure that the employee derives job satisfaction from the assigned roles and responsibilities.


Job analysis plans the job and analyses the roles and responsibilities which are core to the job but Job design makes the job better and basically updates the job so that it remains relevant.

The factors the affect the process of job design are the task characteristics, workflow, ergonomics, work practices, employee abilities and availability, social and cultural expectations and feedback.


Importance of Job Design

Job design is very important because this is the process which makes sure that the job remains updated and is relevant to the employee. The main objective here is to reduce dissatisfaction which comes while doing the job on daily basis. This dissatisfaction can lead to employee leaving the organization and causing issues for the company. Job design has primary responsibility of regularly updating the job.


Job Design Methods

Job design is critical in understanding the various factors of a job like duties, techniques required, hierarchies, skill-sets required, motivation of employees etc. There are several ways in which the requirements of a job can be identified.

Job Design Methods

The main job design methods are mentioned as below:

1. Job Rotation: This method of job design, known as job rotation, is where employees of an organization as exposed to several different roles & profiles across the company. Employees are rotated across various job profiles and the best-suited roles are identified.

2. Job Simplification: Job design method based on complexity of work can be understood by job simplification. This involves identifying mechanical processes, repetitive work, one-product development, tools & skills required.

3. Job Enlargement: The job design method of job enlargement adds more tasks & value to an existing job profile. Apart from the basic skills & abilities required to do the basic work, job enlargement offers more tasks to be performed to the employee

4. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment method of job design looks at enriching the work of the employee by adding more responsibility, value and decision-making powers. This enriches an individual not only professionally but also adds to personal development.


Advantages of effective Job Design

Job design is made to essentially understand the tasks & duties to be done by an employee and how he/she can grow at a professional as well as a personal level. Some advantages of job design are:

1. Job design helps create a job profile which can motivate the employees at work place and reduce dissatisfaction.

2. This ensures that the job is simplified or broken down to employees, especially for those who have limited skills and are lesser learned.

3. Effective job design can expose the employees to a wider set of roles and help them understand the best role suited to them.

4. Job enrichment method of design ensures more value addition & decision-making power, which ensures personal as well as professional growth.

5. Job design also sees what training and development is required for employees to increase employee productivity.

6. It can help understand the employee output, efficiency, work-load and the number of hours required for work vs rest.


Disadvantages of Job Design

There are some issues or drawbacks of job designs as well based on the techniques used:

1. Job simplification method of job design can lead to monotonous work and boredom.

2. Job design by enrichment gives too much control too senior employees which can lead to poor results or conflicts with lower staff.

3. Job design by rotation can affect the flow of work & hamper the quality of output.

4. Enlargement can cause employees to lose focus on core competencies.

Hence, this concludes the definition of Job Design along with its overview.

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